GENEVA CONDITIONS OF SALE
BUYING AT CHRISTIE’S
CONDITIONS OF SALE
These Conditions of Sale and the Important Notices and Explanation of Cataloguing Practice set out the
terms on which we offer the lots listed in this catalogue for sale. By registering to bid and/or by bidding
at auction you agree to these terms, so you should read them carefully before doing so. You will find a
glossary at the end explaining the meaning of the words and expressions coloured in bold.
Unless we own a lot (? symbol), Christie’s acts as agent for the seller.
A ? BEFORE THE SALE
1 ? DESCRIPTION OF LOTS
(a) Certain words used in the catalogue description have special meanings. You can find details of
these on the page headed “Important Notices and Explanation of Cataloguing Practice” which forms
part of these terms. You can find a key to the Symbols found next to certain catalogue entries under
the section of the catalogue called “Symbols Used in this Catalogue”.
(b) Our description of any lot in the catalogue, any condition report and any other statement made by
us (whether orally or in writing) about any lot, including about its nature or condition, artist,
period, materials, approximate dimensions or provenance are our opinion and not to be relied upon
as a statement of fact. We do not carry out in-depth research of the sort carried out by professional
historians and scholars. All dimensions and weights are approximate only.
2 ? OUR RESPONSIBILITY FOR OUR DESCRIPTION OF LOTS
We do not provide any guarantee in relation to the nature of a lot apart from our authenticity warranty
contained in paragraph E2 and to the extent provided in paragraph I below.
3 ? CONDITION
(a) The condition of lots sold in our auctions can vary widely due to factors such as age, previous
damage, restoration, repair and wear and tear. Their nature means that they will rarely be in perfect
condition. Lots are sold "as is," in the condition they are in at the time of the sale, without any
representation or warranty or assumption of liability of any kind as to condition by Christie's or by
(b) Any reference to condition in a catalogue entry or in a condition report will not amount to a full
description of condition, and images may not show a lot clearly. Colours and shades may look
different in print or on screen to how they look on physical inspection. Condition reports may be
available to help you evaluate the condition of a lot. Condition reports are provided free of charge
as a convenience to our buyers and are for guidance only. They offer our opinion but they may not
refer to all faults, inherent defects, restoration, alteration or adaptation because our staff are not
professional restorers or conservators. For that reason they are not an alternative to examining a lot
in person or taking your own professional advice. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have
requested, received and considered any condition report.
4 ? VIEWING LOTS PRE-AUCTION
(a) If you are planning to bid on a lot, you should inspect it personally or through a knowledgeable
representative before you make a bid to make sure that you accept the description and its condition.
We recommend you get your own advice from a restorer or other professional adviser.
(b) Pre-auction viewings are open to the public free of charge. Our specialists may be available to answer
questions at pre-auction viewings or by appointment.
5 ? ESTIMATES
Estimates are based on the condition, rarity, quality and provenance of the lots and on prices recently
paid at auction for similar property. Estimates can change. Neither you, nor anyone else, may rely on any
estimates as a prediction or guarantee of the actual selling price of a lot or its value for any other
purpose. Estimates do not include the buyer’s premium or any applicable taxes.
6 ? WITHDRAWAL
Christie’s may, at its option, withdraw any lot at any time prior to or during the sale of the lot. Christie’s
has no liability to you for any decision to withdraw.
7 ? JEWELLERY
(a) Coloured gemstones (such as rubies, sapphires and emeralds) may have been treated to improve
their look, through methods such as heating and oiling. These methods are accepted by the
international jewellery trade but may make the gemstone less strong and/or require special care
(b) All types of gemstones may have been improved by some method. You may request a gemmological
report for any item which does not have a report if the request is made to us at least three weeks
before the date of the auction and you pay the fee for the report.
(c) We do not obtain a gemmological report for every gemstone sold in our auctions. Where we do get
gemmological reports from internationally accepted gemmological laboratories, such reports will be
described in the catalogue. Reports from American gemmological laboratories will describe any
improvement or treatment to the gemstone. Reports from European gemmological laboratories will
describe any improvement or treatment only if we request that they do so, but will confirm when no
improvement or treatment has been made. Because of differences in approach and technology,
laboratories may not agree whether a particular gemstone has been treated, the amount of treatment
or whether treatment is permanent. The gemmological laboratories will only report on the
improvements or treatments known to the laboratories at the date of the report.
(d) For jewellery sales, estimates are based on the information in any gemmological report or, if no
report is available, assume that the gemstones may have been treated or enhanced.
8 ? WATCHES & CLOCKS
(a) Almost all clocks and watches are repaired in their lifetime and may include parts which are not
original. We do not give a warranty that any individual component part of any watch or clock is
authentic. Watchbands described as “associated” are not part of the original watch and may not be
authentic. Clocks may be sold without pendulums, weights or keys.
(b) As collectors’ watches and clocks often have very fine and complex mechanisms, a general service,
change of battery or further repair work may be necessary, for which you are responsible. We do not
give a warranty that any watch or clock is in good working order. Certificates are not available
unless described in the catalogue.
(c) Most watches have been opened to find out the type and quality of movement. For that reason,
watches with water resistant cases may not be waterproof and we recommend you have them
checked by a competent watchmaker before use.
Important information about the sale, transport and shipping of watches and watchbands can be found in
B ? REGISTERING TO BID
1 ? NEW BIDDERS
(a) If this is your first time bidding at Christie’s or you are a returning bidder who has not bought
anything from any of our salerooms within the last two years you must register at least 48 hours
before an auction to give us enough time to process and approve your registration. We may, at our
option, decline to permit you to register as a bidder. You will be asked for the following:
i) for individuals: Photo identification (driving licence, national identity card or passport) and, if
not shown on the ID document, proof of your current address (for example, a current utility bill
or bank statement);
ii) for corporate clients: Your Certificate of Incorporation or equivalent document(s) showing your
name and registered address together with documentary proof of directors and beneficial
iii) for trusts, partnerships, offshore companies and other business structures, please contact us in
advance to discuss our requirements. For help, please contact our Client Services on +41 22 319
(b) We may also ask you to give us a financial reference and/or a deposit as a condition of allowing you
to bid. For help, please contact our Client Services on +41 22 319 1766.
2 ? RETURNING BIDDERS
We may at our option ask you for current identification as described in paragraph B1(a) above, a financial
reference or a deposit as a condition of allowing you to bid. If you have not bought anything from any of
our salerooms in the last two years or if you want to spend more than on previous occasions, please
contact Client Services on +41 22 319 1766.
3 ? IF YOU FAIL TO PROVIDE THE RIGHT DOCUMENTS
If in our opinion you do not satisfy our bidder identification and registration procedures including, but
not limited to completing any anti-money laundering and/or anti-terrorism financing checks we may
require to our satisfaction, we may refuse to register you to bid, and if you make a successful bid, we may
cancel the contract for sale between you and the seller.
4 ? BIDDING ON BEHALF OF ANOTHER PERSON
(a) As authorised bidder: If you are bidding on behalf of another person, that person will need to
complete the registration requirements above before you can bid, and supply a signed letter
authorising you to bid for him/her.
(b) As agent for an undisclosed principal: If you are bidding as an agent for an undisclosed principal
(the ultimate buyer(s)), you accept personal liability to pay the purchase price and all other sums
due, unless it has been agreed in writing with Christie’s before commencement of the auction that the
bidder is acting as an agent on behalf of a named third party acceptable to Christie’s and that
Christie’s will only seek payment from the named third party.
5 ? BIDDING IN PERSON
If you wish to bid in the saleroom you must register for a numbered bidding paddle at least 30 minutes
before the auction. You may register online at www.christies.com or in person. For help, please contact
Client Services on +41 22 319 1766.
6 ? BIDDING SERVICES
The bidding services described below are a free service offered as a convenience to our clients and
Christie’s is not responsible for any error (human or otherwise), omission or breakdown in providing
(a) Phone Bids
Your request for this service must be made no later than 24 hours prior to the auction. We will accept
bids by telephone for lots only if our staff are available to take the bids. If you need to bid in a language
other than in English, you must arrange this well before the auction. We may record telephone bids. By
bidding on the telephone, you are agreeing to us recording your conversations. You also agree that your
telephone bids are governed by these Conditions of Sale.
(b) Internet Bids on Christie's LIVE?
For certain auctions we will accept bids over the Internet. Please visit www.christies.com/livebidding
and click on the ‘Bid Live’ icon to see details of how to watch, hear and bid at the auction from your
computer. As well as these Conditions of Sale, internet bids are governed by the Christie’s LIVE? terms of
use which are available on www.christies.com.
(c) Written Bids
You can find a Written Bid Form at any Christie’s office or by choosing the sale and viewing the lots
online at www.christies.com. We must receive your completed Written Bid at least 24 hours before the
auction. Bids must be placed in the currency of the saleroom. The auctioneer will take reasonable steps
to carry out written bids at the lowest possible price, taking into account the reserve. If you make a
written bid on a lot which does not have a reserve and there is no higher bid than yours, we will bid on
your behalf at around 50% of the low estimate or, if lower, the amount of your bid. If we receive written
bids on a lot for identical amounts, and at the auction these are the highest bids on the lot, we will sell the
lot to the bidder whose written bid we received first.
C ? CONDUCTING THE SALE
1 ? WHO CAN ENTER THE AUCTION
We may, at our option, refuse admission to our premises or decline to permit participation in any auction
or to reject any bid.
2 ? RESERVES
Unless otherwise indicated, all lots are subject to a reserve. We identify lots that are offered without
reserve with the symbol ? next to the lot number. The reserve cannot be more than the lot’s low
3 ? AUCTIONEER’S DISCRETION
The auctioneer can at his sole option:
(a) refuse any bid;
(b) move the bidding backwards or forwards in any way he or she may decide, or change the order of the
(c) withdraw any lot;
(d) divide any lot or combine any two or more lots;
(e) reopen or continue the bidding even after the hammer has fallen; and
(f) in the case of error or dispute related to the bidding and whether during or after the auction, to
continue the bidding, determine the successful bidder, cancel the sale of the lot, or reoffer and resell
any lot. If you believe that the auctioneer has accepted the successful bid in error, you must provide
a written notice detailing your claim within 3 business days of the date of the auction. The
auctioneer will consider such claim in good faith. If the auctioneer, in the exercise of his or her
discretion under this paragraph, decides after the auction is complete, to cancel the sale of a lot, or
reoffer and resell a lot, he or she will notify the successful bidder no later than by the end of the 7th
calendar day following the date of the auction. The auctioneer’s decision in exercise of this discretion
is final. This paragraph does not in any way prejudice Christie’s ability to cancel the sale of a lot
under any other applicable provision of these Conditions of Sale, including the rights of cancellation
set forth in section B(3), E(2)(i), F(4) and J(1).
4 ? BIDDING
The auctioneer accepts bids from:
(a) bidders in the saleroom;
(b) telephone bidders, and internet bidders through ‘Christie’s LIVE? (as shown above in Section B6);
(c) written bids (also known as absentee bids or commission bids) left with us by a bidder before the
5 ? BIDDING ON BEHALF OF THE SELLER
The auctioneer may, at his or her sole option, bid on behalf of the seller up to but not including the
amount of the reserve either by making consecutive bids or by making bids in response to other bidders.
The auctioneer will not identify these as bids made on behalf of the seller and will not make any bid on
behalf of the seller at or above the reserve. If lots are offered without reserve, the auctioneer will
generally decide to open the bidding at 50% of the low estimate for the lot. If no bid is made at that level,
the auctioneer may decide to go backwards at his or her sole option until a bid is made, and then
continue up from that amount. In the event that there are no bids on a lot, the auctioneer may deem such
6 ? BID INCREMENTS
Bidding generally starts below the low estimate and increases in steps (bid increments). The auctioneer
will decide at his or her sole option where the bidding should start and the bid increments.
7 ? CURRENCY CONVERTER
The saleroom video screens (and Christies LIVETM) may show bids in some other major currencies as well
as Swiss Francs. Any conversion is for guidance only and we cannot be bound by any rate of exchange
used. Christie’s is not responsible for any error (human or otherwise), omission or breakdown in
providing these services.
8 ? SUCCESSFUL BIDS
Unless the auctioneer decides to use his or her discretion as set out in paragraph C3 above, when the
auctioneer’s hammer strikes, we have accepted the last bid. This means a contract for sale has been
formed between the seller and the successful bidder. We will issue an invoice only to the registered
bidder who made the successful bid. While we send out invoices by post and/or email after the auction,
we do not accept responsibility for telling you whether or not your bid was successful. If you have bid by
written bid, you should contact us by telephone or in person as soon as possible after the auction to get
details of the outcome of your bid to avoid having to pay unnecessary storage charges.
9 ? LOCAL BIDDING LAWS
You agree that when bidding in any of our sales that you will strictly comply with all local laws and
regulations in force at the time of the sale for the relevant sale site.
D ? THE BUYER’S PREMIUM, TAXES AND ARTIST'S RESALE ROYALTY
1 ? THE BUYER’S PREMIUM
In addition to the hammer price, the successful bidder agrees to pay us a buyer’s premium on the hammer
price of each lot sold. On all lots we charge 26% of the hammer price up to and including CHF 900,000,
20% on that part of the hammer price over CHF 900,000 and up to and including CHF 6,000,000, and
14.5% of that part of the hammer price above CHF 6,000,000. VAT will be added to the buyer’s premium
and is payable by you. The VAT may not be shown separately on our invoice because of tax laws. You may
be eligible to have a VAT refund in certain circumstances if the lot is exported. Please see the “VAT
refunds: what can I reclaim?” section of ‘VAT Symbols and Explanation’ for further information.
2 ? TAXES
The successful bidder is responsible for all applicable tax including any VAT, sales or compensating use
tax or equivalent tax wherever such taxes may arise on the hammer price and the buyer’s premium.
VAT charges and refunds depend on the particular circumstances of the buyer. It is the buyer’s
responsibility to ascertain and pay all taxes due. VAT is payable on the buyer’s premium and, for some
lots, VAT is payable on the hammer price. Further information can be found in the ‘VAT Symbols and
Explanation’ section of our catalogue. In all circumstances EU and Swiss law takes precedence. For lots
Christie’s ships to the United States, sales or use tax may be due on the hammer price, buyer’s premium
and/or any other charges related to the lot, regardless of the nationality or citizenship of the purchaser.
Christie’s will collect sales tax where legally required. The applicable sales tax rate will be determined
based upon the state, county, or locale to which the lot will be shipped. Successful bidders claiming an
exemption from sales tax must provide appropriate documentation to Christie’s prior to the release of the
lot. For shipments to those states for which Christie’s is not required to collect sales tax, a successful
bidder may be required to remit use tax to that state’s taxing authorities. Christie's recommends you
obtain your own independent tax advice with further questions.
3 ? ARTIST’S RESALE ROYALTY
In certain countries, local laws entitle the artist or the artist’s estate to a royalty known as ‘artist’s resale
right’ when any lot created by the artist is sold. We identify these lots with the symbol ? next to the lot
number. If these laws apply to a lot, you must pay us an extra amount equal to the royalty. We will pay the
royalty to the appropriate authority on the seller’s behalf.
The artist’s resale royalty applies if the hammer price of the lot is 1,000 euro or more. The total royalty
for any lot cannot be more than 12,500 euro. We work out the amount owed as follows:
Royalty for the portion of the hammer price
4% up to 50,000
3% between 50,000.01 and 200,000
1% between 200,000.01 and 350,000
0.50% between 350,000.01 and 500,000
over 500,000, the lower of 0.25% and 12,500 euro.
We will work out the artist’s resale royalty using the euro to sterling rate of exchange of the European
Central Bank on the day of the auction.
E ? WARRANTIES
1 ? SELLER’S WARRANTIES
For each lot, the seller gives a warranty that the seller:
(a) is the owner of the lot or a joint owner of the lot acting with the permission of the other co-owners
or, if the seller is not the owner or a joint owner of the lot, has the permission of the owner to sell the
lot, or the right to do so in law; and
(b) has the right to transfer ownership of the lot to the buyer without any restrictions or claims by
If either of the above warranties are incorrect, the seller shall not have to pay more than the purchase
price (as defined in paragraph F1(a) below) paid by you to us. The seller will not be responsible to you
for any reason for loss of profits or business, expected savings, loss of opportunity or interest, costs,
damages, other damages or expenses. The seller gives no warranty in relation to any lot other than as
set out above and, as far as the seller is allowed by law, all warranties from the seller to you, and all other
obligations upon the seller which may be added to this agreement by law, are excluded.
2 ? OUR AUTHENTICITY WARRANTY
We warrant, subject to the terms below, that the lots in our sales are authentic (our “authenticity
warranty”). If, within 5 years of the date of the auction, you give notice to us that your lot is not
authentic, subject to the terms below, we will refund the purchase price paid by you. The meaning of
authentic can be found in the glossary at the end of these Conditions of Sale. The terms of the
authenticity warranty are as follows:
(a) It will be honoured for claims notified within a period of 5 years from the date of the auction. After
such time, we will not be obligated to honour the authenticity warranty.
(b) It is given only for information shown in UPPERCASE type in the first line of the catalogue
description (the "Heading"). It does not apply to any information other than in the Heading even if
shown in UPPERCASE type.
(c) The authenticity warranty does not apply to any Heading or part of a Heading which is qualified.
Qualified means limited by a clarification in a lot's catalogue description or by the use in a
Heading of one of the terms listed in the section titled Qualified Headings on the page of the
catalogue headed “Important Notices and Explanation of Cataloguing Practice”. For example, use of
the term “ATTRIBUTED TO…” in a Heading means that the lot is in Christie’s opinion probably a
work by the named artist but no warranty is provided that the lot is the work of the named artist.
Please read the full list of Qualified Headings and a lot's full catalogue description before bidding.
(d) The authenticity warranty applies to the Heading as amended by any Saleroom notice.
(e) The authenticity warranty does not apply where scholarship has developed since the auction
leading to a change in generally accepted opinion. Further, it does not apply if the Heading either
matched the generally accepted opinion of experts at the date of the sale or drew attention to any
conflict of opinion.
(f) The authenticity warranty does not apply if the lot can only be shown not to be authentic by a
scientific process which, on the date we published the catalogue, was not available or generally
accepted for use, or which was unreasonably expensive or impractical, or which was likely to have
damaged the lot.
(g) The benefit of the authenticity warranty is only available to the original buyer shown on the invoice
for the lot issued at the time of the sale and only if, on the date of the notice of claim, the original
buyer is the full owner of the lot and the lot is free from any claim, interest or restriction by anyone
else. The benefit of this authenticity warranty may not be transferred to anyone else.
(h) In order to claim under the authenticity warranty you must:
i) give us written details, including full supporting evidence, of any claim within 5 years of the
date of the auction;
ii) at Christie’s option, we may require you to provide the written opinions of two recognised
experts in the field of the lot mutually agreed by you and us in advance confirming that the lot
is not authentic. If we have any doubts, we reserve the right to obtain additional opinions at
our expense; and
iii) return the lot at your expense to the saleroom from which you bought it in the condition it was
in at the time of sale.
(i) Your only right under this authenticity warranty is to cancel the sale and receive a refund of the
purchase price paid by you to us. We will not, in any circumstances, be required to pay you more
than the purchase price nor will we be liable for any loss of profits or business, loss of opportunity
or value, expected savings or interest, costs, damages, other damages or expenses.
(j) Books. Where the lot is a book, we give an additional warranty for 14 days from the date of the sale
that if on collation any lot is defective in text or illustration, we will refund your purchase price,
subject to the following terms:
i) This additional warranty does not apply to:
a. the absence of blanks, half titles, tissue guards or advertisements, damage in respect of
bindings, stains, spotting, marginal tears or other defects not affecting completeness of
the text or illustration;
b. drawings, autographs, letters or manuscripts, signed photographs, music, atlases, maps
c. books not identified by title;
d. lots sold without a printed estimate;
e. books which are described in the catalogue as sold not subject to return; or
f. defects stated in any condition report or announced at the time of sale.
ii) To make a claim under this paragraph you must give written details of the defect and return
the lot to the sale room at which you bought it in the same condition as at the time of sale,
within 14 days of the date of the sale.
(k) South East Asian Modern and Contemporary Art and Chinese Calligraphy and Painting.
In these categories, the authenticity warranty does not apply because current scholarship does not
permit the making of definitive statements. Christie’s does, however, agree to cancel a sale in either of
these two categories of art where it has been proven the lot is a forgery. Christie’s will refund to the
original buyer the purchase price in accordance with the terms of Christie’s authenticity warranty,
provided that the original buyer notifies us with full supporting evidence documenting the forgery claim
within twelve (12) months of the date of the auction. Such evidence must be satisfactory to us that the lot
is a forgery in accordance with paragraph E2(h)(ii) above and the lot must be returned to us in
accordance with E2h(iii) above. Paragraphs E2(b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g) and (i) also apply to a claim under
3 ? YOUR WARRANTIES
(a) You warrant that the funds used for settlement are not connected with any criminal activity,
including tax evasion, and you are neither under investigation, nor have you been charged with or
convicted of money laundering, terrorist activities or other crimes.
(b) where you are bidding on behalf of another person, you warrant that:
i) you have conducted appropriate customer due diligence on the ultimate buyer(s) of the
lot(s) in accordance with all applicable anti-money laundering and sanctions laws, consent
to us relying on this due diligence, and you will retain for a period of not less than 5 years
the documentation evidencing the due diligence. You will make such documentation
promptly available for immediate inspection by an independent third-party auditor upon
our written request to do so;
ii) the arrangements between you and the ultimate buyer(s) in relation to the lot or otherwise
do not, in whole or in part, facilitate tax crimes; and
iii) you do not know, and have no reason to suspect, that the funds used for settlement are
connected with, the proceeds of any criminal activity, including tax evasion, or that the
ultimate buyer(s) are under investigation, or have been charged with or convicted of money
laundering, terrorist activities or other crimes.
F ? PAYMENT
1 ? HOW TO PAY
(a) Immediately following the auction, you must pay the purchase price being:
i) the hammer price; and
ii) the buyer’s premium; and
iii) any amounts due under section D3 above; and
iv) any duties, goods, sales, use, compensating or service tax or VAT.
Payment is due no later than by the end of the 7th calendar day following the date of the auction (the
(b) We will only accept payment from the registered bidder. Once issued, we cannot change the buyer’s
name on an invoice or re-issue the invoice in a different name. You must pay immediately even if you
want to export the lot and you need an export licence.
(c) You must pay for lots bought at Christie’s in Switzerland in the currency stated on the invoice in one
of the following ways:
i) Wire transfer
You must make payments to:
Crédit Suisse, Case Postale 100, 1211 Geneva 70, Switzerland, Account number: 161766 - 41,
Clearing: 4835, Swift code: CRESCHZZ12A. IBAN (international bank account number): CH30 0483
5016 1766 4100 0.
ii) Credit Card.
We accept most major credit cards subject to certain conditions. You may make payment via credit
card in person. You may also make a ‘cardholder not present’ (CNP) payment by calling Christie’s
Post-Sale Services Department on +41 223 191 780 or for some sales, by logging into your
MyChristie’s account by going to: www.christies.com/mychristies.Details of the conditions and
restrictions applicable to credit card payments are available from our Post-Sale Services
Department, whose details are set out in paragraph (e) below. If you pay for your purchase using a
credit card issued outside the region of the sale, depending on the type of credit card and account
you hold, the payment may incur a cross-border transaction fee. If you think this may apply to, you,
please check with your credit card issuer before making the payment.
Please note that for sales that permit online payment, certain transactions will be ineligible for credit
We accept cash subject to a maximum of CHF 12,500 per buyer per year at our Cashiers Department
only (subject to conditions).
iv) Banker’s draft
We do not accept banker’s drafts for sales in Switzerland.
We do not accept personal or company cheques for sales in Switzerland.
(d) You must quote the sale number, lot number(s), your invoice number and Christie’s client account
number when making a payment. All payments sent by post must be sent to: Christie’s, Cashiers
Department, 8 Place de la Taconnerie, 1204 Geneva, Switzerland.
(e) For more information please contact our Cashiers Department by phone on +41 22 319 17 40 or fax
on +41 22 319 1767.
2 ? TRANSFERRING OWNERSHIP TO YOU
You will not own the lot and ownership of the lot will not pass to you until we have received full and clear
payment of the purchase price, even in circumstances where we have released the lot to the buyer.
3 ? TRANSFERRING RISK TO YOU
The risk in and responsibility for the lot will transfer to you from whichever is the earlier of the
(a) When you collect the lot; or
(b) At the end of the 30th day following the date of the auction or, if earlier, the date the lot is taken into
care by a third party warehouse as set out on the page headed 'Storage and Collection', unless we
have agreed otherwise with you in writing.
4 ? WHAT HAPPENS IF YOU DO NOT PAY
(a) If you fail to pay us the purchase price in full by the due date, we will be entitled to do one or more
of the following (as well as enforce our rights under paragraph F5 and any other rights or remedies
we have by law):
i) to charge interest from the due date at a rate of 1% per month on the unpaid amount due;
ii) we can cancel the sale of the lot. If we do this, we may sell the lot again, publicly or privately
on such terms we shall think necessary or appropriate, in which case you must pay us any
shortfall between the purchase price and the proceeds from the resale. You must also pay
all costs, expenses, losses, damages and legal fees we have to pay or may suffer and any
shortfall in the seller’s commission on the resale;
iii) we can pay the seller an amount up to the net proceeds payable in respect of the amount bid
by your default in which case you acknowledge and understand that Christie’s will have all
of the rights of the seller to pursue you for such amounts;
iv) we can hold you legally responsible for the purchase price and may begin legal proceedings
to recover it together with other losses, interest, legal fees and costs as far as we are allowed
v) we can take what you owe us from any amounts which we or any company in the Christie’s
Group may owe you (including any deposit or other part-payment which you have paid to
vi) we can, at our option, reveal your identity and contact details to the seller;
vii) we can reject at any future auction any bids made by or on behalf of the buyer or to obtain a
deposit from the buyer before accepting any bids;
viii) to exercise all the rights and remedies of a person holding security over any property in our
possession owned by you, whether by way of pledge, security interest or in any other way as
permitted by the law of the place where such property is located. You will be deemed to
have granted such security to us and we may retain such property as collateral security for
your obligations to us; and
ix) we can take any other action we see necessary or appropriate.
(b) If you owe money to us or to another Christie’s Group company we can use any amount you do pay,
including any deposit or other part-payment you have made to us, or which we owe you, to pay off
any amount you owe to us or another Christie’s Group company for any transaction.
(c) If you make payment in full after the due date, and we choose to accept such payment we may charge
you storage and transport costs from the date that is 30 calendar days following the auction in
accordance with paragraphs Gd(i) and (ii). In such circumstances paragraph Gd(iv) shall apply.
5 ? KEEPING YOUR PROPERTY
If you owe money to us or to another Christie’s Group company, as well as the rights set out in F4 above,
we can use or deal with any of your property we hold or which is held by another Christie’s Group
company in any way we are allowed to by law. We will only release your property to you after you pay us
or the relevant Christie’s Group company in full for what you owe. However, if we choose, we can also
sell your property in any way we think appropriate. We will use the proceeds of the sale against any
amounts you owe us and we will pay any amount left from that sale to you. If there is a shortfall, you must
pay us any difference between the amount we have received from the sale and the amount you owe us.
G ? COLLECTION AND STORAGE
(a) We ask that you collect purchased lots promptly following the auction (but note that you may not
collect any lot until you have made full and clear payment of all amounts due to us).
(b) Information on collecting lots is set out on the storage and collection page and on an information
sheet which you can get from the bidder registration staff or Christie’s Post-sale Services Department
+41 223 191 780.
(c) If you do not collect any lot promptly following the auction we can, at our option, remove the lot to
another Christie’s location or an affiliate or third party warehouse.
(d) If you do not collect a lot by the end of the 30th day following the date of the auction, unless
otherwise agreed in writing:
(i) we will charge you storage costs from that date.
(ii) we can, at our option, move the lot to or within an affiliate or third party warehouse and charge
you transport costs and administration fees for doing so.
(iii) we may sell the lot in any commercially reasonable way we think appropriate.
(iv) the storage terms which can be found at christies.com/storage shall apply.
(v) Nothing in this paragraph is intended to limit our rights under paragraph F4.
H ? TRANSPORT AND SHIPPING
1 ? TRANSPORT AND SHIPPING
We will enclose a transport and shipping form with each invoice sent to you. You must make all transport
and shipping arrangements. However, we can arrange to pack, transport and ship your property if you
ask us to and pay the costs of doing so. We recommend that you ask us for an estimate, especially for any
large items or items of high value that need professional packing before you bid. We may also suggest
other handlers, packers, transporters or experts if you ask us to do so. For more information, please
contact Christie’s Art Transport on +41 (0)22 319 1717. See the information set out at
www.christies.com/shipping or contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org. We will take reasonable
care when we are handling, packing, transporting and shipping a lot. However, if we recommend another
company for any of these purposes, we are not responsible for their acts, failure to act or neglect.
2 ? EXPORT AND IMPORT
Any lot sold at auction may be affected by laws on exports from the country in which it is sold and the
import restrictions of other countries. Many countries require a declaration of export for property leaving
the country and/or an import declaration on entry of property into the country. Local laws may prevent
you from importing a lot or may prevent you selling a lot in the country you import it into. We will not be
obliged to cancel your purchase and refund the purchase price if your lot may not be exported, imported
or it is seized for any reason by a government authority. It is your responsibility to determine and satisfy
the requirements of any applicable laws or regulations relating to the export or import of any lot you
(a) You alone are responsible for getting advice about and meeting the requirements of any laws or
regulations which apply to exporting or importing any lot prior to bidding. If you are refused a
licence or there is a delay in getting one, you must still pay us in full for the lot. We may be able to
help you apply for the appropriate licences if you ask us to and pay our fee for doing so. However, we
cannot guarantee that you will get one. For more information, please contact Christie’s Art Transport
Department on +41 (0)22 319 1717. See the information set out at www.christies.com/shipping or
contact us at email@example.com.
(b) You alone are responsible for any applicable taxes, tariffs or other government-imposed charges
relating to the export or import of the lot. If Christie’s exports or imports the lot on your behalf, and if
Christie’s pays these applicable taxes, tariffs or other government-imposed charges, you agree to
refund that amount to Christie’s.
(c) Lots made of protected species
Lots made of or including (regardless of the percentage) endangered and other protected species of
wildlife are marked with the symbol ~ in the catalogue. This material includes, among other things,
ivory, tortoiseshell, crocodile skin, rhinoceros horn, whalebone certain species of coral, and Brazilian
rosewood. You should check the relevant customs laws and regulations before bidding on any lot
containing wildlife material if you plan to import the lot into another country. Several countries
refuse to allow you to import property containing these materials, and some other countries require
a licence from the relevant regulatory agencies in the countries of exportation as well as importation.
In some cases, the lot can only be shipped with an independent scientific confirmation of species
and/or age and you will need to obtain these at your own cost. If a lot contains elephant ivory, or any
other wildlife material that could be confused with elephant ivory, (for example, mammoth ivory,
walrus ivory, helmeted hornbill ivory) please see further important information in paragraph (d) if
you are proposing to import the lot into the USA. We will not be obliged to cancel your purchase and
refund the purchase price if your lot may not be exported, imported or it is seized for any reason by
a government authority. It is your responsibility to determine and satisfy the requirements of any
applicable laws or regulations relating to the export or import of property containing such protected
or regulated material.
(d) US import ban on African elephant ivory
The USA prohibits the import of ivory from the African elephant. Any lot containing elephant ivory or
other wildlife material that could be easily confused with elephant ivory (for example, mammoth
ivory, walrus ivory, helmeted hornbill ivory) can only be imported into the US with results of a
rigorous scientific test acceptable to Fish & Wildlife which confirms that the material is not African
elephant ivory. Where we have conducted such rigorous scientific testing on a lot prior to sale, we
will make this clear in the lot description. In all other cases, we cannot confirm whether a lot contains
African elephant ivory, and you will buy that lot at your own risk and be responsible for any scientific
test or other reports required for import into the USA at your own cost. If such scientific test is
inconclusive or confirms the material is from the African elephant, we will not be obliged to cancel
your purchase and refund the purchase price.
(e) Lots of Iranian origin
Some countries prohibit or restrict the purchase and/or import of Iranian-origin "works of
conventional craftsmanship" (works that are not by a recognized artist and/or that have a function,
for example: carpets, bowls, ewers, tiles, ornamental boxes). For example, the USA prohibits the
import of this type of property and its purchase by US persons (wherever located). Other countries,
such as Canada, only permit the import of this property in certain circumstances. As a convenience to
buyers, Christie's indicates under the title of a lot if the lot originates from Iran (Persia). It is your
responsibility to ensure you do not bid on or import a lot in contravention of the sanctions or trade
embargoes that apply to you.
Gold of less than 18ct does not qualify in all countries as ‘gold’ and may be refused import into those
countries as ‘gold’.
Many of the watches offered for sale in this catalogue are pictured with straps made of endangered or
protected animal materials such as alligator or crocodile. These lots are marked with the symbol ψ in
the catalogue. These endangered species straps are shown for display purposes only and are not for
sale. Christie's will remove and retain the strap prior to shipment from the sale site. At some sale
sites, Christie's may, at its discretion, make the displayed endangered species strap available to the
buyer of the lot free of charge if collected in person from the sale site within 1 year of the date of the
sale. Please check with the department for details on a particular lot.
For all symbols and other markings referred to in paragraph H2, please note that lots are marked as a
convenience to you, but we do not accept liability for errors or for failing to mark lots.
I ? OUR LIABILITY TO YOU
(a) We give no warranty in relation to any statement made, or information given, by us or our
representatives or employees, about any lot other than as set out in the authenticity warranty and,
as far as we are allowed by law, all warranties and other terms which may be added to this
agreement by law are excluded. The seller’s warranties contained in paragraph E1 are their own and
we do not have any liability to you in relation to those warranties.
(b) (i) We are not responsible to you for any reason (whether for breaking this agreement or any other
matter relating to your purchase of, or bid for, any lot) other than in the event of fraud or fraudulent
misrepresentation by us or other than as expressly set out in these conditions of sale; or (ii) we do
not give any representation, warranty or guarantee or assume any liability of any kind in respect of
any lot with regard to merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, description, size, quality,
condition, attribution, authenticity, rarity, importance, medium, provenance, exhibition history,
literature, or historical relevance. Except as required by local law, any warranty of any kind is
excluded by this paragraph.
(c) In particular, please be aware that our written and telephone bidding services, Christie’s LIVE?,
condition reports, currency converter and saleroom video screens are free services and we are not
responsible to you for any error (human or otherwise), omission or breakdown in these services.
(d) We have no responsibility to any person other than a buyer in connection with the purchase of any
(e) If, in spite of the terms in paragraphs (a) to (d) or E2(i) above, we are found to be liable to you for any
reason, we shall not have to pay more than the purchase price paid by you to us. We will not be
responsible to you for any reason for loss of profits or business, loss of opportunity or value, expected
savings or interest, costs, damages, or expenses.
J ? OTHER TERMS
1 ? OUR ABILITY TO CANCEL
In addition to the other rights of cancellation contained in this agreement, we can cancel a sale of a lot if:
(a) any of your warranties in paragraph E3 are not correct;
(b) we reasonably believe that completing the transaction is or may be unlawful; or
(c) we reasonably believe that the sale places us or the seller under any liability to anyone else or may
damage our reputation.
2 ? RECORDINGS
We may videotape and record proceedings at any auction. We will keep any personal information
confidential, except to the extent disclosure is required by law. However, we may, through this process,
use or share these recordings with another Christie’s Group company and marketing partners to analyse
our customers and to help us to tailor our services for buyers. If you do not want to be videotaped, you
may make arrangements to make a telephone or written bid or bid on Christie’s LIVE? instead. Unless we
agree otherwise in writing, you may not videotape or record proceedings at any auction.
3 ? COPYRIGHT
We own the copyright in all images, illustrations and written material produced by or for us relating to a
lot (including the contents of our catalogues unless otherwise noted in the catalogue). You cannot use
them without our prior written permission. We do not offer any guarantee that you will gain any
copyright or other reproduction rights to the lot.
4 ? ENFORCING THIS AGREEMENT
If a court finds that any part of this agreement is not valid or is illegal or impossible to enforce, that part of
the agreement will be treated as being deleted and the rest of this agreement will not be affected.
5 ? TRANSFERRING YOUR RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
You may not grant a security over or transfer your rights or responsibilities under these terms on the
contract of sale with the buyer unless we have given our written permission. This agreement will be
binding on your successors or estate and anyone who takes over your rights and responsibilities.
6 ? TRANSLATIONS
If we have provided a translation of this agreement, we will use this original version in deciding any
issues or disputes which arise under this agreement.
7 ? PERSONAL INFORMATION
We will hold and process your personal information and may pass it to another Christie’s Group company
for use as described in, and in line with, our privacy notice at www.christies.com/aboutus/contact/privacy and if you are a resident of California you can see a copy of our California Consumer
Privacy Act statement at https://www.christies.com/about-us/contact/ccpa.
8 ? WAIVER
No failure or delay to exercise any right or remedy provided under these Conditions of Sale shall
constitute a waiver of that or any other right or remedy, nor shall it prevent or restrict the further
exercise of that or any other right or remedy. No single or partial exercise of such right or remedy shall
prevent or restrict the further exercise of that or any other right or remedy.
9 ? LAW AND DISPUTES
This agreement, and any contractual or non-contractual dispute arising out of or in connection with this
agreement, will be governed by Swiss law, excluding the Convention on Contracts for the International
Sale of Goods. Before either you or we start any court proceedings and if you and we agree, you and we
will try to settle the dispute by mediation in accordance with the Swiss Rules of Mediation of the Swiss
Chambers’ Arbitration Institution. If the dispute is not settled by mediation, you agree for our benefit that
the dispute will be referred to and dealt with exclusively in the cantonal courts located in Christie’s place
of business, subject to any appeal to the Swiss Federal Supreme Court; however, we will have the right to
bring proceedings against you in any other court.
10 ? REPORTING ON WWW.CHRISTIES.COM
Details of all lots sold by us, including catalogue descriptions and prices, may be reported on
www.christies.com. Sales totals are hammer price plus buyer’s premium and do not reflect costs,
financing fees, or application of buyer’s or seller’s credits. We regret that we cannot agree to requests to
remove these details from www.christies.com.
K ? GLOSSARY
auctioneer : the individual auctioneer and/or Christie’s.
authentic : a genuine example, rather than a copy or forgery of:
(i) the work of a particular artist, author or manufacturer, if the lot is described in the Heading as
the work of that artist, author or manufacturer;
(ii) a work created within a particular period or culture, if the lot is described in the Heading as a
work created during that period or culture;
(iii) a work for a particular origin source if the lot is described in the Heading as being of that origin
or source; or
(iv) in the case of gems, a work which is made of a particular material, if the lot is described in the
Heading as being made of that material.
authenticity warranty: the guarantee we give in this agreement that a lot is authentic as set out in
section E2 of this agreement.
buyer’s premium: the charge the buyer pays us along with the hammer price.
catalogue description: the description of a lot in the catalogue for the auction, as amended by any
Christie’s Group: Christie’s International Plc, its subsidiaries and other companies within its corporate
condition: the physical condition of a lot.
due date: has the meaning given to it paragraph F1(a).
estimate: the price range included in the catalogue or any saleroom notice within which we believe a lot
may sell. Low estimate means the lower figure in the range and high estimate means the higher figure.
The mid estimate is the midpoint between the two.
hammer price: the amount of the highest bid the auctioneer accepts for the sale of a lot.
Heading: has the meaning given to it in paragraph E2.
lot: an item to be offered at auction (or two or more items to be offered at auction as a group).
other damages: any special, consequential, incidental or indirect damages of any kind or any damages
which fall within the meaning of ‘special’, ‘incidental’ or ‘consequential’ under local law.
purchase price: has the meaning given to it in paragraph F1(a).
provenance: the ownership history of a lot.
qualified : has the meaning given to it in paragraph E2 and Qualified Headings means the section
headed Qualified Headings on the page of the catalogue headed 'Important Notices and Explanation of
reserve: the confidential amount below which we will not sell a lot.
saleroom notice : a written notice posted next to the lot in the saleroom and on www.christies.com,
which is also read to prospective telephone bidders and notified to clients who have left commission bids,
or an announcement made by the auctioneer either at the beginning of the sale, or before a particular lot
UPPER CASE type: means having all capital letters.
warranty: a statement or representation in which the person making it guarantees that the facts set out
in it are correct.
Symbols used in this Catalogue
The meaning of words coloured in bold in this section can be found at the end of the section of the
catalogue headed ‘Conditions of Sale’
? Christie’s has a direct financial interest in the lot. See Important Notices and Explanation of Cataloguing
? Owned by Christie’s or another Christie’s Group company in whole or part. See Important Notices and
Explanation of Cataloguing Practice.
? Christie’s has a direct financial interest in the lot and has funded all or part of our interest with the help
of someone else. See Important Notices and Explanation of Cataloguing Practice.
? Artist’s Resale Right. See Section D3 of the Conditions of Sale.
? Lot offered without reserve which will be sold to the highest bidder regardless of the pre-sale estimate
in the catalogue.
~ Lot incorporates material from endangered species- which could result in export restrictions. See
Section H2(c) of the Conditions of Sale.
~ Lot incorporates material from endangered species which is shown for display purposes only and is not
for sale. See Section H2(g) of the Conditions of Sale
+ See VAT Symbols and Explanation.
Please note that lots are marked as a convenience to you and we shall not be liable for any errors in, or
failure to, mark a lot.